Camera & EquipmentsPhotography Courses

Camera & Equipments

The Camera

Pinhole Camera

The pinhole camera is the most basic machine that can produce a photographic image. It is just like a small version of the ancient camera obscura. It is made of thin opaque material. It consist small hole instead of lens at one side and a sheet of film or sensitized paper is placed on a opposite the pinhole. The light rays traveling through the small hole and an image is formed on the opposite wall. There's no way to focus the image, so it's not very sharp. However, the pinhole camera does produce a recognizable photographic picture of the subject/

Disposable Camera

These are fun cameras with no controls, but they come loaded with 35 mm film (400 or 800 ASA) and so give better quality prints. These cameras have fixed-local-length lens, some shutter speed and a built in flash that works efficiently up to 4 meters (13 ft). In bright light these machines produce surprisingly good results. When you have taken the last shot, you send the whole camera away to process the film. Some models are water proof or take long thin photographs called panoramas.

Compact Camera

A point and shoot camera, also commercially called a compact camera, is a still camera designed primarily for simple operation. These cameras will take good quality pictures of almost any subject, in most types of lightings. Some models give you a choice of two different lenses : wide angle lens for broad scenes or a telephoto lens for close-up pictures. Other models have a zoom lens, which starts off as a wide-angle but, as you press a button, zooms into a telephoto. They include a viewfinder for composition, but use auto focus (or focus free lenses) for focusing and automatic systems for exposure as well. They are popular with people who don't consider themselves photographer but want as easy to use camera for vacations, parties, reunions and other events. Most point and shoots have flash units built in.

SLR (Single Lens Reflex) Camera

The most versatile and popular 35 mm camera type is the SLR camera. Its popularity has been largely due to the range of lenses and accessories available for it as well as its built-in electronic programming. A viewing and focusing system through the taking lens avoids parallax problems and interchangeable lenses make it highly flexible. SLR's range from simple to very sophisticated models, and can be manually operated, fully automatic or both. You can also attach a separate flash-gun, which gives better lightening than built-in flash.

Light passes through the camera lens and is reflected by a mirror onto the focus screen. The image is viewed through any eyepiece via the pentaprism, this allows the subject to be seen the right way round, and shows approximately 90-95% of the image that will appear in the film. In order to expose the film that is located directly behind the mirror (and shutter), the mirror must flip up, out of the way. The mirror is up for the fraction of a second when an image is recorded, black-out of the way. The mirror is up for the fraction of second when and image recorded, black-outing the viewing system. After exposure the mirror flips back down to its original position.


Lens is defined as a portion of a transparent refracting medium bounded by one or two spherical surfaces. There are mainly two types of lenses, one is concave and other is convex The physical structure of these lenses are different from each other. The central part of the concave lens is thin while the edges are thick and the central part of the convex lens is bulges out and tapers at both the ends. A photographic lens is made up of a number of separate lenses , each of which is called lens element. The lens element are mounted within a cylinder of plastic or metal called the lens barrel. The barrel has an adjustable focusing ring on it. When and autofocus (AF) lens is mounted on an autofocus camera a motor, in the lens or camera body will adjust the focusing ring gears. The lens also might have an f-stop ring on it, that adjust the aperture inside the lens barrel. A lens is designed by its focal length.

Light enters the camera through the lens. The lens is combination of specially pieces of glass that bend, or refract the light to form a sharp, focusing image on the film.